In 1987, the APA’s Committee on Pre-College Philosophy commissioned a consensus statement on critical thinking for purposes of educational assessment and instruction (Facione 1990a).Researchers have developed standardized tests of critical thinking abilities and dispositions; for details, see the Supplement on Assessment.
In 1987, the APA’s Committee on Pre-College Philosophy commissioned a consensus statement on critical thinking for purposes of educational assessment and instruction (Facione 1990a).Researchers have developed standardized tests of critical thinking abilities and dispositions; for details, see the Supplement on Assessment.Tags: Biology Extended Essay Research QuestionsHigh School Essay FormatInvention Internet EssayEssay By Young Girl About Losing Her Dad In IraqPercentage Problem Solving QuestionsMath Problem Solving Model
In the 1930s, many of the schools that participated in the Eight-Year Study of the Progressive Education Association (Aikin 1942) adopted critical thinking as an educational goal, for whose achievement the study’s Evaluation Staff developed tests (Smith, Tyler, & Evaluation Staff 1942).
Glaser (1941) showed experimentally that it was possible to improve the critical thinking of high school students.
Also since 1980, the state university system in California has required all undergraduate students to take a critical thinking course.
Since 1983, the Association for Informal Logic and Critical Thinking has sponsored sessions in conjunction with the divisional meetings of the American Philosophical Association (APA).
Conceptions differ with respect to the scope of such thinking, the type of goal, the criteria and norms for thinking carefully, and the thinking components on which they focus.
Its adoption as an educational goal has been recommended on the basis of respect for students’ autonomy and preparing students for success in life and for democratic citizenship.
Controversies have arisen over the generalizability of critical thinking across domains, over alleged bias in critical thinking theories and instruction, and over the relationship of critical thinking to other types of thinking.
active, persistent and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds that support it, and the further conclusions to which it tends.
However, most research on the transfer of skills suggests that the latter definition, critical thinking as a domain-specific ability, is more accurate (1).
People’s ability to solve problems and make effective decisions depends on their level of expertise and experience within one area. Even within a single domain critical thinking is a complex, higher-order skill that is hard to learn and even harder to transfer across domains.