Bullying can have a wide spectrum of effects on a student including anger, depression, stress, and suicide.Additionally, the bully can develop different social disorders or have a higher chance of engaging in criminal activity.For example, physical and sexual violence may be more prevalent in schools in contexts where it is also more prevalent in wider society.
Schools themselves can "teach" children to be violent through discriminatory practices, curricula and textbooks.
If unchecked, gender discrimination and power imbalances in schools can encourage attitudes and practices that subjugate children, uphold unequal gender norms and tolerate violence, including corporal punishment.
It is required that such programs are implemented at all schools in each country.
A victim, in the short term, may feel depressed, anxious, angry, have excessive stress, learned helplessness, feel as though their life has fallen apart, have a significant drop in school performance, or may commit suicide (bullycide).
Bystanders who witness repeated victimizations of peers can experience negative effects similar to the victimized children themselves." While most bullies, in the long term, grow up to be emotionally functional adults, many have an increased risk of developing antisocial personality disorder, which is linked to an increased risk of committing criminal acts (including domestic violence).
The educational effects on victims of school violence and bullying are significant.
Gender inequality and the prevalence of violence against women in society exacerbate the problem.
Similarly, social norms that support the authority of teachers over children may legitimise the use of violence to maintain discipline and control.
According to the paper which reviews the previous research on the causes of school bullying, following external factors and internal factors might bring about bullying.
External factors include less relational mobility due to closed curriculum and environment, peer pressure, lack of bullying prohibition rules that every classmate shares, absence of supervisors, and so on.