Review Of Literature On Training And Development

Review Of Literature On Training And Development-27
Three major approaches to training evaluation: quality ascription, quality assessment and quality control are highlighted.In order to enhance the effectiveness of training, evaluation should be integrated with organizational life. Wright, 1992): Reports on a study of current and past training literature which suggests that, to be effective and to isolate both training needs and those problems having other, non-trainable solutions, training must be preceded by a needs analysis.Paauwe (2004) specifies task analysis to be a detailed study of the job to be undertaken in order to identify skills required for the job.

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On the other hand, lectures have their weaknesses, the main of which is the possibility that the attention of managers participating in them may be shifted to different things if they find it not to be interesting.

Moreover, Laird et al (2003) state that usually in majority of lectures there are no provisions for student participation and this is another major disadvantage of this training method.

Design of a valid measurement programmed should include evaluation in key areas; including emotional reaction and knowledge gain measured after training interventions.

Behavioral change and organizational impact measurements should be used on a longer time horizon o evaluate the progress and currency of the management development programme.

The following purposes of training and development as proposed by Beardwell et al (2004): a) Maximising productivity and service provision for the company b) Developing the adaptability for the workforce c) Developing an organisation as a whole d) Increasing job satisfaction, motivation and morale of workforce e) Improving standards and safety at work f) Promoting the Better utilisation of other resources g) Standardisation of work practices and procedures Wood (2009) divides trainings methods into two categories: traditional training methods, and electronic training methods.

Traditional training methods include lectures, on-the-job training, apprenticeship training, offside training, programmed learning, informal learning, job instruction training, and training stimulated by audiovisual tools.

A study of 74 senior managers within Indian Railways, over three years, has revealed that managers, in order to become effective, not only require task and people skills but also self-development knowledge and skills.

Moreover, the above broad categories of managerial skills form a hierarchy which suggests that the more senior positions which managers occupy, the greater the need for people and self-development. Woods, 2002): Describes a study undertaken to assess how private club managers perceive the relative effectiveness of alternative training methods to attain specific types of training objectives.

As a traditional training method, on-the-job training includes job rotation, coaching, and action learning, whereas the main elements of off-the-job training (offside training) are case-study, games, external seminars, Internet-based seminars and conferences, university-related programs, role-playing, behavioural modelling, Internet educational portals, and behavioural modelling.

The main elements of electronic training are computer-based training, video-conferencing, electronic performance support systems, tele-training, learning portals and others.


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