However, few studies have explored whether and how students’ achievement levels affect their homework behaviors. This study aims to increase understanding on how students’ levels of achievement are related to their homework behaviors (i.e., homework time spent, homework time management, and amount of homework completed), and how students with different achievement levels perceive the involvement of their parents in the homework process (i.e., control and support). doi: 10.3102/0034654308325185 Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Pomerantz, E.
In that situation, parents are more prone to display controlling forms of involvement (Pomerantz and Eaton, 2001; Grolnick et al., 2002; Ng et al., 2004; Niggli et al., 2007). Parents and their children’s school lives –commentary on the special issue, ‘parents’ role in children’s school lives’.
Thus, although a major assumption in previous studies has been that different types of parental involvement in homework are related to different levels of school achievement, it is also likely that children’s academic achievement predicts or motivates parents to become involved in homework in particular ways.
For example, whereas perceived parent–child conflicts about homework were negatively associated with educational outcomes, perceived parental competence and support for students’ self-direction were positively related to achievement. (2013), who found that academic achievement was significantly and negatively associated with parental control and strict structure (i.e., excessive control and pressure on children to complete assignments, consistent guidelines and rules about homework and school work). (2015) found that students’ perceptions of strong control by parents in the homework process was directly and negatively related to academic achievement. Parent involvement in homework: a research synthesis.
The higher the perceived parental homework control, the lower the students’ academic achievement.
Recently, however, there have been serious debates in Spanish schools and in other countries about whether or not teachers should assign homework.
The debates involve students’ complaints about the time required to do their homework, parents’ complaints about the quantity of homework assigned and their lack of information on how to guide their child on homework tasks, and, teachers’ complaints about the lack of time to design effective homework assignments and deliver feedback to students, and the lack of parental support for students to do their work (Cooper et al., 2006). Study limitations and educational implications are discussed. Homework was defined by Cooper (1989) some years ago as the tasks assigned by teachers to students to be completed outside the class. Mothers’ affect in the homework context: the importance of staying positive. However, findings vary depending on the research design (Cooper et al., 2006; Patall et al., 2008), nature of measures (i.e., global vs. specific) (Trautwein et al., 2009), students’ grade level (Núñez et al., 2015), and focus of the analysis (e.g., student variables, instructional process variables, or parental involvement) (Núñez et al., 2014). doi: 10.1037/0012-16188.8.131.52 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Pomerantz, E. Relationships between parental involvement in homework and academic achievement have been deeply debated and frequently investigated, with inconsistent results (Gonida and Vauras, 2014). Some studies found a positive relationship (Cooper et al., 2001; Pomerantz and Eaton, 2001), others reported a negative relationship between the two variables (Schultz, 1999). (2012) found both positive and negative relationships, depending on the nature or quality of the involvement. The literature suggests several reasons for parents’ involvement: their own motivation (Hoover-Dempsey et al., 1995; Katz et al., 2011); their socioeconomic status (Davis-Kean, 2005); teacher outreach and homework design that encourages engagement (Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler, 1997; Epstein and Van Voorhis, 2001); and their children’s academic functioning (Pomerantz and Eaton, 2001; Grolnick et al., 2002; Cunha et al., 2015), with academic functioning one of the strongest instigators of parents’ attention to homework. That is, parents are more likely to be involved when children are not doing well in school (Levin et al., 1997; Pomerantz and Eaton, 2001; Ng et al., 2004; Silinskas et al., 2010). Epstein and van Voorhis (2012) identified homework as a natural connector of school and home. In these ways, homework is one of the most common school activities involving teachers, students, and parents (Rosário et al., 2015). doi: 10.3102/003465430305567 Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Pomerantz, E.