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Background to referencing Vancouver style Introduction Articles in journals Books and other individual titles, chapters Other published material Unpublished material Electronic material Additional reference types Example of text and references in the Vancouver style "Cited by" references Example of a "cited by" reference Using the Vancouver style with End Note or Ref Works Philson Library Information Services staff When writing essays or articles, you must support your statements and opinions with references to the work and research of others on which your statements are based. For sample references of these types, see International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals: Sample References Advanced Life Support Group. Occupational therapy manpower: a plan for progress. In: Foster JA, Lutton E, Miller J, Ryan C, Tettamanzi AG, editors. Euro GP 2002: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Genetic Programming; 2002 Apr 3-5; Kinsdale, Ireland. This is important because failure to attribute (reference) your sources of information may be seen as plagiarism.
Chicago: American Medical Association; c1995-2007 [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Here, the website as a whole has no date of publication; but the specific datasheet has a publication date of July 10, 2007; you looked at (cited) the datasheet on Sep 3, 2008; and it is about 20 screens long. Evanston (IL): The American Board of Medical Specialists. Available from: the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System [Internet]. Available from: SH Browser (2011 Me SH) [Internet]. Available from: by entering in the Titles and Synonyms section. University of Auckland, NZ; notes provided at a lecture given 2005 May 18.
Available from: AMA: helping doctors help patients [Internet]. Wellington: New Zealand Medicines and Medical Devices Safety Authority. Available from: This example shows how to refer to a single datasheet on the Medsafe website, the one for Voltaren Rapid 25 tablets. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Perinatal Data Center. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), Medical Subject Headings Section; 2001 Apr [updated 2001 Nov 20; cited 2007 Jan 31]. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University, Department of Animal Science. Pyridine alkaloids; [updated 2001 Oct 4; cited 2007 Feb 16]; [about 2 screens]. Drugdex evaluations: Rivastigmine [cited 2008 Sep 3]; [about 50 screens]. Port Townsend (WA): Best of Both Worlds Foundation. (In this example, the lecturer provided a lecture title on the notes). [Unpublished lecture notes on anatomy of the head and neck].
maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&andorexactfulltext= and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&volume=333&firstpage=1251&resourcetype=HWCIT Williams JS, Brown SM, Conlin PR.
Comorbidity and repeat admission to hospital for adverse drug reactions in older adults: retrospective cohort study. All styles supplied with End Note, including the Vancouver style, may have problems with the correct output of some reference types - in particular references to materials found on the Web.
Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2003 May 2 [updated 2005 Jul 14; cited 2006 Nov 15]. In this case, you must make it clear that you are relying on someone else’s interpretation, so that you are not held responsible for any errors in that interpretation.
The influence of education on the career preferences of undergraduate nursing students. New York: Commonwealth Fund; 2006 Sep [cited 2006 Nov 2]. Available from: sheet: AIDS information resources [Internet]. The current state of patient and family information about end-of-life care. In: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [Internet]. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular disease; four prospective American studies. On occasions, this will not be possible, and you will only have access to another author’s interpretation of the original.Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. American Occupational Therapy Association, Ad Hoc Committee on Occupational Therapy Manpower. An analysis of Koza's computational effort statistic for genetic programming. Some possible ways of providing the in-text details would be: The head is connected to the spine by the neck (Professor John B Smith, lecture on anatomy of the head and neck, 2005 May 18). It would also be wise to ask your assignment marker if it is acceptable to reference this type of material; and check with the lecturer whose lecture or other personal communication you are quoting that your notes accurately reflect what he/she said. Yen GG (Oklahoma State University, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Stillwater, OK). Arlington (VA): Air Force Office of Scientific Research (US), Air Force Research Laboratory; 2002 Feb. Risk factors for groin wound infection after femoral artery catheterization: a case-control study. In addition, those reading your work who wish to follow up this previous research need complete and accurate references in order to do so. Tolerability and safety of frovatriptan with short- and long-term use for treatment of migraine and in comparison with sumatriptan. There are many different styles of identifying and setting out references. Arsenic in Drinking Water: An Update on the Science, Benefits and Cost: Hearing Before the Subcomm. The rules for electronic material are not as clear as those for print material; and details of all these different elements may not always be given in the electronic item. Note: The above examples of US legal material can be used as models for NZ legal material, e.g., a NZ statute can be modelled on (a) above; since it was consulted online, details for Cited: (date) and Available from: (URL) are also given: The basic elements to be included for a reference to electronic material in the Vancouver style are listed below.