Other psychological factors such as wellbeing also have an impact on health.
Furthermore, regular communication with family and peers can also lead to positive health benefits. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 22, 427-436.
Research has shown that children who report ease of communication with their parents are less likely to report physical and psychological complaints (Woodward et al. Research has also shown that adolescents who report having positive peer relationships and friendships are more likely to have better perceived wellbeing (Moreno et al. This is because peer relations during adolescence support the development of establishing self-esteem and autonomy (Currie et al. However, peer relations can also lead to maladaptive health behaviours.
Similarly, substance abuse during pregnancy such as alcohol consumption can lead to less than optimal foetal development such as foetal alcohol syndrome which can result in poor growth, behavioural problems related to attention, and a weak immune system for the child (Smith and Graden, 1998 ). American Journal of Public Health, 96 (10), 1821-1828. Stress- related immune suppression: Health implications.
Moreover, the schooling environment is important for the development of self-esteem and therefore positive health behaviour (Currie et al. Other researchers have found that students who perceive their school as supportive often engage in positive health behaviours and report high levels of life satisfaction (Roberts et al. This suggests that the schooling environment which provides a form of secondary socialisation plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of a child’s mental health. Stress, coping, and disturbed eating patterns in teenage girls. Glaser, R., Rice, J., Sheridan, J., Fertel, R., Stout, J., Speicher, C., ...
Lynch et al (1998) found a negative correlation between mortality rates and income, whereby an increase in mortality rate is related to a decrease in income. Chronic stress and obesity: a new view of “comfort food”. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 3 (1), 1-43.
Alaimo et al (2001) found that children from low income families were more likely to experience more frequent stomach-aches and headaches. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100 (20), 11696-11701.
Marmot et al (2010) also found how people living in the richest post codes of England will, on average, live seven years longer than people living in the poorest areas.
In addition, Pinderhughes et al (2001) found that parents living in deprived areas were more likely to report parenting stress than those in least deprived areas. Social determinants of health and well-being among young people.
Twenty five years later, they found that those in higher job roles, such as office-based employment, had lower mortality rates from diseases such as coronary heart disease.
In addition, research has shown that for all major causes such as digestive, heart and respiratory diseases, and death rates for men aged 25 to 64 are much higher among those from manual backgrounds than those from non-manual backgrounds (Kunst et al. Similarly, other socioeconomic factors such as unemployment and job insecurity could also put an individual’s health at risk.