Social historians have investigated how the war touched ordinary people and affected social roles, values and attitudes.
Economic historians have considered how the war affected government policy, national economies, personal wealth, trade, commerce and finance.
Olin, historian From the late 1920s, historians began to move away from extreme positions and finger-pointing, as war anger cooled.
Intentionalist historians began to make way for structuralist historians, who argued the war was started not by individual leaders or politicians but a complex web of militarism, alliances, nationalism and other factors.
If the Kaiser and his generals truly wanted a war, Barnes argued, they had numerous opportunities to start one before then.
Barnes’ account of the war caused an uproar; he was widely condemned as a historical revisionist and a German propagandist.
The Kaiser’s role in the July crisis had been drastically overstated, Fay argued; it was the governments of Austria-Hungary, Russia and Serbia who were chiefly responsible for taking the final steps toward war.
Fay’s more balanced perspective delighted the , which rushed a German-language edition into print.
An American historian, Barnes was initially anti-German but he later switched positions to argue against US involvement in the war.
In his controversial 1926 book, , Barnes named France and Russia as the two nations most liable for the cataclysm of 1914.