Even then, the English Civil War broke out and the tensions did not fully end until the Glorious Revolution of 1688, by Parliament inviting William and Mary of Orange from Holland to the throne, and passing the Bill of Rights 1689.
In 1693 William Penn, a Quaker from London who founded Pennsylvania in North America, argued that to prevent ongoing wars in Europe a "European dyet, or parliament" was needed.
A separate treaty was signed for a European Atomic Energy Community to manage nuclear production.
In 1961 the United Kingdom, Denmark, Ireland and Norway applied for membership only to be vetoed in 1963 by France's Charles de Gaulle.
In 1950, the French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman proposed that, beginning with integration of French and German coal and steel production, there should be "an organisation open to the participation of the other countries of Europe", where "solidarity in production" would make war "not merely unthinkable, but materially impossible".
The Treaty of Paris 1951 created the first European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), signed by France, West Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Italy, with Jean Monnet as its president.In the Renaissance, medieval trade flourished in organisations like the Hanseatic League, stretching from English towns like Boston and London, to Frankfurt, Stockholm and Riga.These traders developed the lex mercatoria, spreading basic norms of good faith and fair dealing through their business.In the East, the Soviet Union had installed dictatorial governments, controlling East Germany, and the rest of Eastern Europe.Although Stalin died in 1953 and the new general secretary Nikita Khrushchev had denounced him in 1956, The EU evolved from the Coal and Steel Community of 6 member states, to a union of 28 member states in 2013.New states may join the EU, if they agree to operate by the rules of the organisation, and existing members may leave according to their "own constitutional requirements".Citizens are able to vote directly in elections to the Parliament, while their national governments operate on behalf of them in the Council of the European Union and the European Council. The Council of the European Union represents member state governments, while the Court of Justice is meant to uphold the rule of law and human rights.According to its Court of Justice, the EU represents "a new legal order of international law".The EU's legal foundations are the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, unanimously agreed by the governments of 28 member states.European Union law is the system of laws operating within the member states of the European Union.The EU has political institutions and social and economic policies.