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Furthermore, self-determination not only gives rise to nationalism but also to ethical and legal citizenship and with it, the ability of a nation to self-govern.As a result, Dahbour (2003) argues that nationalism is a specific claim made for self-determination.In this period, the most significant event involving nationalism occurred in 1914, when a fear of Slav nationalism led to the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand which resulted in the First World War (Breuilly, 2013).
In this framework, nationalism is defined as ‘an ideological movement for attaining and maintaining autonomy of unity and identity for a population which some of its members deem to constitute an actual or potential “nation”.’ However, for Anderson (2006: 211), nations are merely “imagined communities” as members of these communities will rarely know each other, and thus they will draw upon the concept of nationality from their own imagined population to which they belong to.
This idea emerged from earlier concepts elaborated by Gellner (1969) who argued that nationalism is nothing more than the process of imagining nations.
A similar definition that focuses on the idea that nationalism is internally felt by the individual was developed by Khon (1965: 9) arguing that: “Nationalism is a state of mind, in which the supreme loyalty of the individual is felt to be due to the nation-state”.
Similar to Smith (2013), Coakley (2012) argues that many of the current definitions on nationalism overlap with each other and also with definitions of other notions, such as the concept of state.
As a result, a cultural element – language- aided in the spread and maturation of nationalism (Andersen, 2006).
Nevertheless, this argument does not concern itself with the emergence of nationalism but rather examines its consolidation.
To initiate an analysis of definitions and forms of nationalism, this essay will focus on four main definitions (Smith, 2016; Anderson, 2006, Gellner, 1969 and Khon, 1965).
When referring to “nation” and “nationality” Smith (2013: 7) defines nationalism based on three generic goals which have emerged from the academic study of this ideology, namely national unity, national autonomy and national identity.
Finally, it can be observed that notions of self-determination and nationalism seen as an imagined form of identity expression have been maintained from the 19 (Smith, 2013).
Thus, the following sections will attempt to uncover the reasons behind these differences.