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The unit for measuring electric charge is the coulomb (C), named after Charles-Augustin Coulomb, an 18th-century French physicist.Coulomb developed the law that says "like charges repel; unlike charges attract." A coulomb is defined as the amount of charge transported by a current of one ampere for one second.However, Franklin became convinced that there was only one single electric fluid and that objects could have excess or deficiency of this fluid.
Electric charge is quantized, meaning that it occurs in discrete units.
Protons and electrons carry charges of ±1.602 × 10 C.
In this scheme, the mitochondrial matrix is below the membrane, whereas the cytosol is above it.
The reactions carried out in the chain are explained below.
It is generally believed that the net charge of the universe is neutral.
If the ratio of positive to negative charge were off by a factor of only 10, the Coulomb force would be more powerful than gravity, which would make the universe quite different from the one we observe, Dubson told Live Science.
Electrons, though, are believed to be truly fundamental, meaning they cannot be split into smaller parts. That means it cannot be created or destroyed, and the net amount of electric charge in the universe is constant and unchanging.
Positive and negative charges can neutralize each other, or neutral particles can split to form positively and negatively charged pairs of particles, but the net amount of charge always remains the same.
In contrast, the respiratory chain combines chemical reactions with physical forces that are not pinned down to individual molecules, and the energy is stored and converted in novel ways.
The respiratory chain involves four large protein complexes (I–IV) as well as ATP synthase (AS).